Lhasa Great Mosque.
Secondly, it is a comparatively influential mosque not only among the local Muslims but also among the new immigrants. Wapaling neighborhood, where the mosque is located, is not only the traditional residential area of the Lhasa Muslims, but it also attracts Muslim traders who are only temporarily in Lhasa to participate in religious activities. Thus, Lhasa Great Mosque provides favorable conditions for the study of local Muslim customs. During this month, Muslims all around the world must fulfill their Islamic duty of fasting from dawn to dusk.
This month of fasting is the most respected and blessed month for Muslims Zhongguo Yisilan , p. If it is visible, then the next day will be the day of fast breaking, Eid al-Fitr; if it is invisible due to cloudy weather, the fasting will continue and Eid will be postponed for one day Zhongguo Yisilan , pp. Furthermore, Muslims fast to revere Allah and to assume the responsibilities, which a Muslim should undertake for Allah. Muslims are supposed to purify themselves from body to soul through fasting and to perform prayers devoutly.
The fasting starts at dawn after a small meal and ends at dusk with the fast-breaking meal. When possible, Muslims should go to the mosque for prayers and meditation. The donations will either be distributed directly to the poor or used as funds for the mosques; 3 to recite the Eid prayer. On the morning of the Eid al-Fitr, after dressing well and performing the major ablution ghusl , male Muslims will assemble at the mosque for the grand Eid prayer. Thereafter, they will shake hands with each other and exchange greetings. Some families will read the Quran to thank Allah and pray to him for blessings and peace for their families.
Others will visit the graves of their deceased and read the Quran to mourn the dead Zhongguo Yisilan , p. However, in Tibet the time of Ramadan is usually recalculated locally due to different weather conditions and thus can vary by up to three days. The times for fasting, fast-breaking and prayers during Ramadan were calculated by the local imam according to the local sunrise and sunset and were thus based on local conditions.
The imam then wrote them on a little blackboard hanging on the north wall of the mosque yard so that the notice was readily seen by all. In addition, a bell sounded twice a day to remind Muslims of the times for fasting and fast-breaking. Before , the mosque would dispatch someone beating a gong along Barkhor Street to inform the local Muslims of the fasting times during Ramadan. PS: The donation Sadaqah al-Fitr 15 will be ten yuan for each adult and child.
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Since it was cloudy, the new moon was not seen. The prayer time was scheduled by the imam not only based on the Islamic doctrines, but also on the experiences of the previous years and for reasons of convenience. Dongzisulu no. Jiri banshichu of the Chengguan District Government. During the Tibetan rebellion 16 of March , the main hall of Lhasa Great Mosque and its historical tablets were burnt down by Tibetans Only in was Lhasa Great Mosque restored to its original purpose and the local government also allocated funds for the maintenance of the mosque.
Photo 2. Outline of Lhasa Great Mosque , Photo 3. Northern entrance of Lhasa Great Mosque. The upper part of this gate has a gable roof with its eaves decorated in Tibetan style patterns and designs Bai , pp.
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The official name of the mosque, i. To the right of the mosque is a two-storey building.
The rooms on the first floor are used as shops and those on the second floor as the reception room of the mosque management committee. The prayer hall is a three-storey building laid out in an east-westerly direction, topped by a green dome roof with a crescent and with two minarets on each side. The floor of the hall is made of wooden boards covered with prayer rugs.
The mihrab is beautifully decorated with golden twisted lotuses and engraved with white-lettered Quran verses written on a green background in order to provide a magnificent, solemn and respect-demanding impression. In the left recess of the mihrab we find a raised pulpit the minbar , from which the imam addresses the congregation The cabinet, which holds Islamic scriptures and hi-fi equipment, is located in the recess to the right.
On both sides of the mihrab hang large paintings of the Kaaba of Mecca, painted by local Muslim artists. A certain part of the second floor of the prayer hall is reserved for women praying during Ramadan. To the south of the classrooms are a kitchen and a canteen, a storage room and an office to the east.
Photo 4. In the case of rain, the classrooms for the pre-school education will be opened for praying. Photo 5. Yard of Lhasa Great Mosque during Eid prayer. Duodixiang in the northern suburb of Lhasa. In general, Lhasa Muslims of inland origins are buried there, but due to the increasing number of migrant Muslims doing business in Tibet, some of those migrants are interred there as well. To the west of the cemetery is a mountain and on the other three sides, the cemetery is surrounded by walls. The houses of the cemetery keepers and the cemetery prayer hall are both inside the gate on the cemetery ground.
Poplars, wild peach trees, hawthorns , willows and green lawns can be seen there. Currently, there are still sixteen Qing Dynasty tombs and one of the Chinese Republican Era These monumental graves are erected in the traditional Chinese style, in which the upper parts of the stone tablets are rounded Xizang zizhiqu wenwu , pp.
It consists of a hall, a hallway, guest rooms, a shower room and a yard. All the buildings are decorated in a mixed Tibetan and Islamic style. The entrance of the prayer hall faces east and the wooden floors are covered with prayer rugs. As in the Great Mosque of Lhasa, a mihrab is placed in the center of the western wall and tapestries depicting the Kaaba of Mecca hang on both sides.
The pavilion-shaped minbar is located on the upper left side of the mihrab. Photo 6. There, a row of Tibetan style houses with flat rooftops is used for the gatekeepers. These offer a wide range of products such as halal meat and other food stuffs , general Muslim supplies, tea, and caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis. Furthermore, there are facilities such as halal restaurants, public shower rooms, dry cleaning, and so on. With the gradual growth of Muslim businesses now offering all kinds of commodities, Muslim life in Lhasa has become more convenient.
The snacks are mostly of northwestern Chinese cuisine and include various kinds of cooked, barbecued, boiled and pickled food, but also cold noodles and twists of fried dough sanzi. The customers are mostly Muslim visitors to the mosque who wait for fast-breaking, but also Buddhist Tibetans living nearby. The architectural style and the interior decorations of Muslim homes in Lhasa are almost the same as those of Tibetan Buddhists. In line w ith recent economic development in Tibet , t he income of Lhasa Muslims living in the Wapaling and Telpungang districts has increased and they often rent out premises to migrant Muslims.
Migrant Muslim s living in Wap alin g can convenient ly pursue both r eligious activities and daily life. In the past five years, many Lhasa Muslims have refurbished or rebuilt their houses, which are mostly three or four-storey Tibetan-style buildings. Along with social development and increases in income, fashionable modern furniture is gradually entering the homes of the Lhasa Muslims.
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Although cleaning is a daily routine for them, with the advent of Eid, every Muslim household will take extra care to clean the house and to tidy up the rooms. The yard and the gateway will be swept and everything will be put in order. T he t wo communities were always managed independently of each other. This practice is similar for most inland mosques in China. Similar to the Muslim council of elders Chin. All the other ones of Lhasa Great Mosque then elected a board member in-charge. Immediately below them in rank were two team leaders Chin. The establishment of the council of elders xianglao hui had to be approved by the former Tibetan Department of Agriculture 25 Tib.
So nam las khungs; Chin. The community-elders who led the xianglao , the xianglao -in-charge, usually served for three years but could continue their service when agreed upon. According to i nscriptions on wooden boards of the mosque that were burnt in , some other posts like house manager, storage manager, oxtail manager 26 , deacon and general dispatcher existed as well Xue , pp. This suggests that the council of elders had a complete internal administration and a specific division of work.
http://exchangeaccomodator.com/sitemap1.xml According to Ma Wenzhong 27 , the two team-leaders served under the xianglao -in-charge and were only responsible for specific affairs of the association. This opinion is shared by most Chinese scholars. Xue, however, argues that the team-leaders operated outside of the council of elders, i. He maintains that although the baozheng were recommended by the local Muslim community, they were appointed by and under the direction of local Tibetan authorities.
For example, whenever the Dalai Lama proceeded to the Summer Palace and to the Jokhang Temple, the two team-leaders would be in his retinue riding horses and wearing Chinese style clothes. When a dispute arose between Muslims, the team-leaders had the right to mediate and to handle the case. The dispute would only be reported to the Tibetan government when the team-leaders could not solve it Xue , pp. Siddhartha Gautama, who came to be called the Buddha "the Enlightened" , was born into an aristocratic family.
At the age of twenty-nine, distressed by the misery of mankind, he renounced his life of luxury and left his wife and infant son to become a wandering ascetic. For six years he practiced the most severe austerities, eating little and meditating regularly.
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