Bashir was an international pariah back then. The United States had ratcheted up sanctions throughout the administration of George W. Bush, who was then leaving office, and his successor, Barack Obama, had railed against the genocide in Darfur as a senator. In addition, most Middle Eastern governments were opposed to the regime in Khartoum because of its alliance with Iran. Since then, the wars have only grown, engulfing the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile regions, and the Khartoum regime has cut off humanitarian access to these areas, which has left countless people without emergency aid for more than five years.
Meanwhile, numerous political prisoners languish in Sudanese prisons, corruption is endemic, and the economy is in shambles. Seybolt Taylor B. Seybolt University of Pittsburgh. Abstract The Darfur Atrocities Documentation Project was both a great success and a disturbing failure. Seybolt, Taylor B.
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Taylor B. Register to save articles to your library Register. Paper statistics. Wendy E. Davis at Northeastern University - School of Law. I was maybe two hundred meters away. The man who shot him was wearing military khaki and a cap. We went back the day after and buried him. The Yassin area, located, east and southeast of Nyala, along the railroad, was particularly hard-hit by attacks beginning in June The ethnic composition of the area is diverse, with Gimr, Bergit, Bergou, Dajo and Dinka  African tribes represented among the settled farming population, and Arab pastoral tribes, including the Beni Hussein and Misseriya, also present.
Following the attack, the government withdrew the twenty-one police stationed in Yassin.
Consolidation of Ethnic Cleansing in Darfur, Sudan | HRW
Residents of Yassin expected that the government would send troops to protect the area after the rebel attack, but none arrived. Until July, the situation remained relatively quiet, but then, "the Janjaweed came into the area and began to shoot people and burn the villages. Residents of nearby Heglig finally fled their homes in early October just before the harvest, after a succession of attacks on Heglig and other villages. A witness told Human Rights Watch, "The Janjaweed are around us now, we have no security but the Janjaweed are free and comfortable in our places.
A local leader who returned to the village saw and heard the Janjaweed in the village. They are using our fields as grazing for their cattle. The Heglig villagers said that many of their attackers were members of the Shattiya Rizeigat, a sub-clan of the Riziegat, one of the larger tribes of Arab pastoralists in South Darfur. The Rizeigat, headed by Said Madibo, refused to provide recruits for the government sponsored militia to use in the Darfur conflict. But although they benefited from the looted cattle of the Dinka, they received a bad reputation internationally for taking Dinka women and children to use as forced labor, or slaves.
Credible sources told Human Rights Watch that motives for the participation of the Shattiya Rizeigat in the conflict are two-fold. Several of the usual migration routes from South Darfur northwards have been obstructed by the rebel presence in areas northeast of Nyala and nomadic groups are seeking alternate grazing land for their livestock. In addition, Musa Kasha, a government minister from the sub-clan, is from a leading Rizeigat family rival to the Madibo family.
By arming this sub-clan, further pressure is put on the head of the Rizeigat to join the government forces. In other areas of South Darfur, some attacks also appear to be partly motivated by the prevailing impunity of the nomadic groups who feel empowered by the collapse of law and order and the opportunity to graze animals on farmers' lands. A sixty-seven-year-old Dajo farmer, who fled his home in early October, lost his harvest after armed camel nomads brought all their animals onto his land. So I held up my hands, what could I do? All my grain was eaten, all my fields.
Use of airpower in attacks is occurring despite promises by the Sudanese government to E. Following are two examples of recent gunship attacks in which the civilian population and civilian objects were directly or indiscriminately attacked in violation of international humanitarian law the laws of war. On October 7, , government forces conducted a helicopter gunship attack on Labanti, an inhabited village approximately two kilometers west of the Nyala-Fashir road, near the village of Douma,  South Darfur.
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According to eyewitnesses, Labanti had been attacked earlier that day, at a. The area had no police or military protection at the time of the attack. The police were withdrawn in July and the military forces left following a September 27 rebel attack on their camp in Douma. When men and boys from Labanti and surrounding villages gathered to track and retrieve the stolen cattle, apparently armed only with spears and sticks, they encountered a Sudanese government military convoy on the main road.
The government troops lashed and detained eleven men and boys from the group. One person was released after "confessing.
Shortly after, two green helicopter gunships appeared, circled twice, low over Labanti. On the third flyover, one dropped three bombs at the southern edge of the village, apparently targeting a lone man in civilian clothes jellabiya , a white robe on a horse. According to villagers in Douma, a soldier telephoned in a report that the convoy had captured some SLA members immediately after they were taken into custody. There was SLA presence further east of the road and also northwest of Douma, but, according to an eyewitness, other villagers and the omda village head of Douma, SLA members were not in or around Labanti or adjacent villages on October 7.
Residents reported the capture and bombing incident to the African Union ceasefire observers the same day. The AU observers immediately investigated and filed a report.
A high-level military intelligence officer in Nyala denied to Human Rights Watch on October 12 that gunships had participated in the October 7 attack. The officer noted that helicopter gunships routinely accompany or are in the vicinity of military convoys; they help the troops and are called in when there is trouble, but only to secure the troops. He stated that a military convoy traveling to Malam on the main road had been ambushed by the SLA, with five soldiers shot.
Abu Dileig is a mostly Zaghawa and Berti town of 1, residents south of Nyala. These forces looted the town and withdrew, and an hour later two attack helicopters appeared and fired into the town. This was the first time any helicopters or aircraft were used to strike inside the town. Four people were killed and eleven wounded during the attack.
One elderly man was burned inside his house when the helicopter set fire to it; the others reportedly killed were two children and one woman. Villagers fled when the military vehicles arrived, so they were scattered in the plains outside by the time the helicopters arrived an hour later.
The helicopters appeared to target Zaghawa houses and shops.
The Atrocities Have Not Ended—Neither Should Sanctions
Ninety houses with thatched roofs were burned, most by rockets fired from the helicopters, although the soldiers shot at the houses also. Helicopter fire also burned three classrooms in the school and the school offices, the water tank, the bore hole engine, and the pump. It appeared to the local population that the houses were targeted for ethnic reasons. A local leader told Human Rights Watch:.
The SLA was not present at the time of the attack, according to the local leader. After an hour of looting, the soldiers and Janjaweed left in their vehicles, together. The rebel groups in Darfur consist of two main groups, one new faction emerging in The SLA rebels, drawing mainly from the Zaghawa, Fur, Masalit and several smaller Darfurian tribes, are the largest single rebel group and control the largest territory, including the northern band of North Darfur and areas in South and West Darfur. Unless specifically cited, most of the abuses decribed below are the responsibility of the SLA.
The rebel movements have been responsible for direct attacks on civilian objects in violation of international humanitarian law, and for causing deaths and injuries to civilians. Malam, located on the eastern side of Jebel Marra,  was a town of many ethnic groups, with both Fur and Beni Mansour pastoralists living there prior to the conflict. At least three civilians were killed and five others, including at least one woman, were injured after being shot by rebel fighters.
Several eyewitnesses said the attackers entered the northern part of the town and moved from house to house before retreating east into the Jebel Marra mountains.
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An eighteen-year-old woman who was injured in the attack also described it to Human Rights Watch:. Human Rights Watch received credible allegations of other, earlier SLA attacks in the Malam area, including on a nomadic settlement on April 21, , in which ten civilians were reportedly killed, and an attack on Um Dashur on June 6, , in which six civilians were reportedly killed. Additional serious allegations were made which Human Rights Watch was not able to verify, including an incident on June 15, in which eight unmarried Beni Mansour women were allegedly raped by SLA fighters near Malam.
In a separate incident, SLA forces are alleged to have fired within Buram hospital in March , injuring at least one child in the building. Rebel abduction of civilians in violation of international humanitarian law has occurred in different parts of Darfur. Some of the targets of these abductions have been people of wealth, such as businessmen, but other individuals, including aid workers, have also been targeted.see url
U.N. report: Darfur not genocide
Others seem to have been targeted on account of their ethnic origin, i. In addition, some young boys are alleged to have been abducted while trying to protect their cattle, camels and other livestock from looting by the rebel groups. Others have been abducted when they encountered SLA forces by chance in rural areas. While some people-particularly aid workers who the rebels hold to emphasize their control of an area-have been released following their abductions and intervention from international agencies, the fate of many abductees is unknown. A serious incident of multiple abductions and possible summary executions, allegedly by SLA forces, took place along the Nyertite-Thur road, on the southern side of Jebel Marra, in West Darfur.
Eighteen passengers, including University of Nyala students of nomadic Arab origin, were removed from the bus and taken away by an SLA commander. According to credible reports, some of those detained were killed while under his authority. In another case, a member of the Aulad Mansour Arab nomadic tribe told Human Rights Watch that one of his relatives, a man named Toreen, was abducted from a commercial truck in June He believed the abduction was a case of mistaken identity and that the SLA thought Toreen was in fact the omda of the Aulad Mansour.
Human Rights Watch received a list of thirty-nine people, including two children, rebel forces allegedly abducted in the Malam area between August 2, and July 10, Their whereabouts also remain unknown. Human Rights Watch received a report of what appears to have been a summary execution of a civilian by rebel forces. The SLA apparently held him in the Labado police station that night. Hussein was found dead the next day near the railroad tracks, near Labado town. One of his relatives said,. Rebels have been involved in the looting of substantial numbers of cattle, other livestock, and commercial goods from trucks and vehicles in Darfur.
These attacks on civilian property are a violation of international humanitarian law. Given the importance of livestock as the primary family asset, looting of cattle and camels can render the owners destitute. This is particularly true for nomads who depend almost entirely on livestock for their income.
Human Rights Watch received reports of armed attacks on convoys of camels that were being taken across traditional trade routes in North Darfur that appear to have been the responsibility of the SLA.
Related Genocide in Darfur: Investigating the Atrocities in the Sudan
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